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Meanwhile, humans have been learning to harness different forms of energy. The earliest identified use of wind energy is the crusing ship; the earliest document of a ship beneath sail is that of a Nile boat courting to the 8th-millennium BCE. From prehistoric occasions, Egyptians in all probability used the power of the annual flooding of the Nile to irrigate their lands, progressively learning to regulate much of it by way of purposely built irrigation channels and “catch” basins. The historical Sumerians in Mesopotamia used a fancy system of canals and levees to divert water from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers for irrigation. Continuing improvements led to the furnace and bellows and provided, for the first time, the power to smelt and forge gold, copper, silver, and lead – native metals present in relatively pure form in nature.

Some critics see these ideologies as examples of scientism and techno-utopianism and fear the notion of human enhancement and technological singularity which they support. Optimistic assumptions are made by proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and singularitarianism, which view technological growth as generally having useful results for the society and the human condition. In these ideologies, technological growth is morally good.

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Technology is usually thought-about too narrowly; in accordance with Hughes, “Technology is a artistic process involving human ingenuity”. On the somewhat skeptical side are sure philosophers like Herbert Marcuse and John Zerzan, who consider that technological societies are inherently flawed. They recommend that the inevitable results of such a society is to turn out to be evermore technological at the cost of freedom and psychological well being.

The oldest known constructed roadways are the stone-paved streets of the town-state of Ur, relationship to circa 4000 BCE and timber roads main through the swamps of Glastonbury, England, courting to around the similar time interval. The first lengthy-distance road, which got here into use round 3500 BCE, spanned 1,500 miles from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea, however was not paved and was only partially maintained. In around 2000 BCE, the Minoans on the Greek island of Crete built a fifty-kilometer (thirty-mile) road leading from the palace of Gortyn on the south side of the island, by way of the mountains, to the palace of Knossos on the north aspect of the island. Unlike the sooner street, the Minoan highway was fully paved.

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The advantages of copper instruments over stone, bone, and picket tools had been shortly obvious to early people, and native copper was most likely used from near the beginning of Neolithic occasions (about 10 ka). Native copper does not naturally occur in large quantities, however copper ores are fairly common and some of them produce metal easily when burned in wooden or charcoal fires. Eventually, the working of metals led to the invention of alloys such as bronze and brass (about 4000 BCE). The first uses of iron alloys corresponding to metal dates to round 1800 BCE. Human’s technological ascent started in earnest in what is named the Neolithic Period (“New Stone Age”).